The World Economy

The world economy can be evaluated in various ways, depending on the model used, and this valuation can then be represented in various ways (for example, in 2006 US dollars). It is inseparable from the geography and ecology of Earth, and is therefore somewhat of a misnomer, since, while definitions and representations of the "world economy" vary widely, they must at a minimum exclude any consideration of resources or value based outside of the Earth. For example, while attempts could be made to calculate the value of currently unexploited mining opportunities in unclaimed territory in Antarctica, the same opportunities on Mars would not be considered a part of the world economy – even if currently exploited in some way – and could be considered of latent value only in the same way as uncreated intellectual property, such as a previously unconceived invention.
Beyond the minimum standard of concerning value in production, use, and exchange on the planet Earth, definitions, representations, models, and valuations of the world economy vary widely.
It is common to limit questions of the world economy exclusively to human economic activity, and the world economy is typically judged in monetary terms, even in cases in which there is no efficient market to help valuate certain goods or services, or in cases in which a lack of independent research or government cooperation makes establishing figures difficult. Typical examples are illegal drugs and other black market goods, which by any standard are a part of the world economy, but for which there is by definition no legal market of any kind.
However, even in cases in which there is a clear and efficient market to establish a monetary value, economists do not typically use the current or official exchange rate to translate the monetary units of this market into a single unit for the world economy, since exchange rates typically do not closely reflect world-wide value, for example in cases where the volume or price of transactions is closely regulated by the government. Rather, market valuations in a local currency are typically translated to a single monetary unit using the idea of purchasing power. This is the method used below, which is used for estimating worldwide economic activity in terms of real US dollars. However, the world economy can be evaluated and expressed in many more ways. It is unclear, for example, how many of the world's 6.6 billion people have most of their economic activity reflected in these valuations.
Economy overview 2005–2008
Current account balance 2006, Global output (gross world product) (GWP) rose by 4.4% in 2005, led by China (9.3%), India (7.6%), and Russia (5.9%). The other 14 successor nations of the USSR and the other old Warsaw Pact nations again experienced widely divergent growth rates; the three Baltic nations continued as strong performers, in the 7% range of growth.
Growth results posted by the major industrial countries varied from no gain for Italy to a strong gain by the United States (3.5%).
The developing nations also varied in their growth results, with many countries facing population increases that erode gains in output.
Externally, the nation-state, as a bedrock economic-political institution, is steadily losing control over international flows of people, goods, funds, and technology. Central governments are losing decision making powers and enhancing their international collective power thanks to strong economic bodies of which they democratically chose to become part, notably the EU. The introduction of the euro as the common currency of much of Western Europe in January 1999, while paving the way for an integrated economic powerhouse, poses economic risks because of varying levels of income and cultural and political differences among the participating nations.
Internally, the central government often finds its control over resources slipping as separatist regional movements - typically based on ethnicity - gain momentum, e.g., in many of the successor states of the former Soviet Union, in the former Yugoslavia, in India, in Iraq, in Indonesia, and in Canada.
In 2008 after vigorous growth which produced a dramatic increase in the price of commodities such as oil and basic foodstuffs, the international economy began to slow in many countries providing relief from high commodities prices and increasing inflation. It was the opinion of some observers that the world economy had become somewhat overheated and was retracting to a more sustainable pace.
Economy Statistical indicators
GDP (GWP) (gross world product): (purchasing power parity exchange rates) - $59.38 trillion (2005 est.), $51.48 trillion (2004), $49 trillion (2002)
GDP (GWP) (gross world product) (IMF 179 countries): (market exchange rates) - $43.92 trillion (2005 est.), $40.12 trillion (2004), $32.37 trillion (2002)
GDP - real growth rate: 4.3% (2005 est.), 3.8% (2003), 2.7% (2001)
GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $9,300 (2005 est.), $8,200 (92) (2003), $7,900 (2002)
GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 4% industry: 32% services: 64% (2004 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): developed countries 1% to 4% typically; developing countries 5% to 60% typically; national inflation rates vary widely in individual cases, from declining prices in Japan to hyperinflation in several Third World countries (2003)
Derivatives outstanding notional amount: $273 trillion (end of June 2004), $84 trillion (end-June 1998)
Resumed from Wikipedia


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